Excel Top Tip #3

You tell Excel a value is constant by prefixing its column and/or row reference with a $ sign. This way, when a calculation is copied the reference remains constant.

e.g. in the following VAT calculation each value is multiplied by the same, constant rate. To insert the $ sign, press F4 which cycles through all the permutations.

Use F4 to insert $ signs

Using $ means Excel leaves a cell reference constant when the formula is copied